A vasectomy is a procedure used to essentially work as male birth control.
It cuts off the sperm supply so that it does not get into the semen. The small tubes that carry the sperm are cut and sealed during the process. This procedure is performed to prevent pregnancy. It is almost 100 percent effective.
The doctor will provide patients with full preparation instructions. In general, bathing the day of the procedure is recommended. Make sure that the genital area is cleaned carefully. Men who take medications that can thin the blood might require a dose adjustment or they may need to abstain temporarily prior to the surgery.
In most cases, this surgery is done using local anesthesia that will numb the scrotum to ensure patient comfort. Once the patient is numbed, the doctor will make a small cut into the upper scrotal area. In some cases, a puncture is used instead of an incision. After locating the vans deferens, part of it is removed via the puncture or incision. It is then cut and sealed by either cauterizing it, tying it, or applying surgical clips. Some doctors use more than one of these methods. The ends of the vans deferens are then returned to the scrotum. The incision is then closed. Doctors may use glue or stitches for this. In some cases, the wound is not closed, but allowed to heal and close over time.
Most men will be able to go home shortly after the procedure. Some swelling, pain, and bruising is not uncommon after a vasectomy. Within a few days, it usually resolves without intervention. Doctors will give patients full discharge instructions to ensure that they heal. These generally include:
Using ice to alleviate discomfort
Limiting activity for up to three days
Refraining from sexual activity for approximately seven days
Keeping the incision site clean and dry
Changing bandages as instructed by the doctor
For 48 hours, men are usually instructed to wear tight-fitting underwear
This is a relatively safe procedure. Most men recover without issue. However, it is important to know what the possible risks are so that patients can be prepared. These include:
Scrotal blood clot or bleeding
Mild discomfort or pain
Blood in the semen
Surgery site infection
While uncommon, there are certain delayed complications that patients should know about, including:
Abnormal cyst on the epididymis
Testicular fluid buildup
Pregnancy due to failed vasectomy (this is considered to be very rare)